PAPER — the material obtained after drying of a special paper pulp in a thin sheet. Raw material is mainly wood mass and cellulose, and straw, rags, waste paper and other with the addition of in the development of Paper fillers (different minerals or starch), dyes and adhesives. Paper pulp is processed into Paper by hand (handmade Paper)or on special paper machines (Paper manufacturing machinery).Paper invented in China about 105 ad, in 6-8 centuries, the production of Paper begins in other countries in Asia and then in Europe: first in Spain and in the 10th century and in other countries of the continent.
Paper of various types were widely used in the manufacture of postage products (postage stamps, Paper, envelope, card and other). Such Paper usually is characterized by high smoothness, whiteness, good quality paint, has the necessary strength. Release Paper: on the composition of the raw material with different ratio of the content of cellulose and wood pulp (high-quality Paper made of pulp with a low content of wood pulp is more durable and a little yellow), vegetable fibers (Paper Chinese, Japanese),with different additives (Paper fibers, silk threads, fluorescent, colored , and so forth); the thickness of procarton, the Paper is dense, thick, average thickness, thin, silk, tissue and other; the degree of grinding and distribution of sizing materials — the Paper is smooth (satin), porous cotton, brushed and so on; as the surface Paper of the ordinary (no special coating or processing), coated, glossy, lacquered, painted, krupnoplodnaja, Verger, soft, hard(Kraft) and other, as well as metallic (covered with metal foil), with the lamination film and the other; the types of special treatment Paper with watermarks, protective, light-sensitive and other. In addition, in some cases, a Paper of special types, for example parchment, and secondary use.
Deformation — change in dimensions of initial sheet of paper changes its moisture content. When dry overly moist paper may appear wavy deformation. Previously, when the metallographic printing method, paper specially moistened, and when dry sheets as a result of deformation and shrinkage, there were differences in the size of stamps. With modern printing technology it is almost impossible. The forgers were subjected to some brands shrinkage method, known in the textile industry called "mercerizing", and given their inexperienced philatelists as "samples" and "species".
Aging is a property of the paper to change color, become brittle and fragile. For printing stamps usually used, especially in the last 40 years, the best grades of paper, not subject to rapid aging. With proper storage the stamps retain the original appearance for many decades.
PAPER ASTRO-SUITE — a special kind of card paper high-quality lacquered, with almost a mirror reflection of light rays. Used in the manufacture of marked artistic postal cards of the USSR since 1979.
PAPER BANKNOTE paper density and high strength with smooth (brushed) surface, usually with a watermark. Has been used mainly for the printing of banknotes, relatively rare — for postage stamps.
PAPER BREAD CARDS — special grade of paper intended for food cards; gray-blue fibrous paper. Because no other paper was used for printing stamps of Lithuania in the Berlin press in February and may 1919.
PAPER CARD (PROCARTON) — sort of thick stiff paper (thickness over 0.13 mm, weight of more than 120 g per 1 m 2) with smooth (satin) surface is sometimes coated. Used mainly to print different postcards. In the manufacture of postage stamps is rarely used, for example, so-called brands-the money of Russia in 1915-17, a special souvenir sheet Czechoslovakia in 1945.
CHINESE PAPER — the name of the local varieties of paper making manual (the candle), made of bamboo and rice straw. Used in the printing of the first stamps of Brazil 1843-50.
PAPER CHROME is one of many types of coated paper.
PAPER COLOR — the collective name of types of paper, which comprises dyeing wesesa, to give it some color other than white. Paper color is often used in printing postage stamps, for example, the USSR used in the early 1950s, blue, grey, yellow, cream and other Paper color (No. 1554-1555, 1559-1560, etc.).
PAPER COTTON in philatelic catalogs the name of grades used in the manufacture of postage stamps (for example, Soviet stamps 1921 No. 13C). A matte printing paper, loose, permeable typographical paint (the pattern can be seen on the reverse side). The name "Paper cotton" is not quite true, for cotton, its composition is irrelevant.
KRAFT PAPER — a tough paper medium density with smooth (brushed) surface, yellow-brown color in various shades. Used in the manufacture of one-piece things in different countries, including marked standard envelopes USSR in 1940-55.
PAPER DICKINSON — see Paper with silk threads.
PAPER ENVELOPE — the collective name of various kinds of paper specially used for printing of envelopes. The USSR used special Paper envelope with a watermark or without, different colors, lately 2 varieties: white with a grayish tinge (in the catalogs of stamped envelopes of the USSR marked "O-2" — offset number 2) and bright white, superior quality ("CB" — white envelope).
PAPER FIBRILS (STREAKS) — type of paper, which in the process of manufacture added a fine silk fibrils (veins) of different colors. Were often used for postage stamps, for example, official stamps GDR 1956-60, and also stamps of different countries, printed in a special Swiss typography Courvoisier.
PAPER FLUORESCENCE — paper, composed of inorganic substances — fluorescine; glows when irradiated by ultraviolet rays. Currently widely used in many countries for postage stamps (USSR 1969). The use of Paper fluorescence is associated with the development of automated sorting and processing of mail
PAPER-FROSTED — look paper with a smooth surface specially treated structural and civil engineering machines (with glossy surface). Widely used in printing postage stamps.
GLOSSY PAPER — kind of paper, the surface of which is polished by special machines, like calenders, sometimes to a mirror finish. Often used in the manufacture of stamps, such as colored Paper glossy — for marks of the Church (Papal) area
PAPER banknotes— kind paper secondary use, one side of which is printed blanks of banknotes, and on the other — postage stamps. On sheets of Paper currency printed, such as stamps of Latvia 1919-20, on the reverse side of which is harvested, but not cut banknotes of the Riga Soviet of workers ' deputies, banknotes whites.
PAPER JAPANESE —
1. The name of the local varieties of handmade paper (generation) made from the mulberry tree. Used in the printing of the stamps of Japan 1871 — 82.
2. Title of paper machine production (thick, with a yellowish tinge), was used in issuing stamps of Austria 1934-51.
PAPER KRUPNOPLODNAJA — name of paper grades with wide lines of serration. In the post journals more often used for the whole things, at least — stamps. Paper with fine horizontal bars in the slab — see laid Paper.