Dictionary

PAINT ALUMINUM. Used in printing to create the effect of printing "silver". Consists of tiny aluminum powder mixed with binding agents. Used when printing some of the Soviet brands.

ANILINE DYE — paint on the basis of organic synthetic dyes. Not resistant to exposure to water. Stamps printed with aniline Paint, they require very careful handling — can't lay in the water. Lately when printing postage Paint aniline is practically not used.

The PAINT FLUORESCENCE is a special form of printed fluorescent inks with special chemical admixtures, glowing under the influence of certain rays of the spectrum. In the manufacture of postage stamps Paint fluorescently is used to facilitate automation of the processing and sorting of mail, allows you to use poctoperative and samplevalue machines with electronic control systems. Often with the same purpose, the same chemical compounds directly in the paper pulp.

PAINT is UNSTABLE — the collective name printing ink with low strength properties that are sensitive to water, oxygen, light and other. Nekotorye Paint unstable under the action of sunlight or lose color (fade marks), or change it. For example, paint the frame on the stamp unit of the USSR in 1974 "Soviet painting" (No. 4342) of yellow-brown becoming grey-green. Postage stamps with changed color or discolored under the influence of external conditions species are not.

PAINT OXIDIZED decomposition of the ink under the influence of the oxygen of the air; usually manifested in the color change paint. Very often the Paint oxidation significantly on the postage stamps of the 19th century. For example, the color of the postage stamps of Hamburg 1864 in denominations of 1 shilling 1/4 of the normal light purple when the Paint becomes oxidized to a greenish-grey or blue. In some cases it is possible to recover the original color of paint in refreshing brands hydrogen peroxide. Brand of Paint oxidized species are not considered.

PAINT PRINTING (color printing) — a mixture of pigments with binding substance in a certain proportion, used in printing. Paints topografske for the manufacture of postage stamps increased demands on the strength properties (light fastness, water resistance, and others), as well as the quality of the prints (the purity of tone, brightness, etc.).

PAINT VOLATILE — stamp name printing ink with low strength properties, gradually changing color under the action of atmospheric oxygen. Some types of volatile Paints used, for example, in the manufacture of postage stamps of great Britain and her possessions in the second half of the 19th century.

PAPER — the material obtained after drying of a special paper pulp in a thin sheet. Raw material is mainly wood mass and cellulose, and straw, rags, waste paper and other with the addition of in the development of Paper fillers (different minerals or starch), dyes and adhesives. Paper pulp is processed into Paper by hand (handmade Paper)or on special paper machines (Paper manufacturing machinery).Paper invented in China about 105 ad, in 6-8 centuries, the production of Paper begins in other countries in Asia and then in Europe: first in Spain and in the 10th century and in other countries of the continent.

Paper of various types were widely used in the manufacture of postage products (postage stamps, Paper, envelope, card and other). Such Paper usually is characterized by high smoothness, whiteness, good quality paint, has the necessary strength. Release Paper: on the composition of the raw material with different ratio of the content of cellulose and wood pulp (high-quality Paper made of pulp with a low content of wood pulp is more durable and a little yellow), vegetable fibers (Paper Chinese, Japanese),with different additives (Paper fibers, silk threads, fluorescent, colored , and so forth); the thickness of procarton, the Paper is dense, thick, average thickness, thin, silk, tissue and other; the degree of grinding and distribution of sizing materials — the Paper is smooth (satin), porous cotton, brushed and so on; as the surface Paper of the ordinary (no special coating or processing), coated, glossy, lacquered, painted, krupnoplodnaja, Verger, soft, hard(Kraft) and other, as well as metallic (covered with metal foil), with the lamination film and the other; the types of special treatment Paper with watermarks, protective, light-sensitive and other. In addition, in some cases, a Paper of special types, for example parchment, and secondary use.

Deformation — change in dimensions of initial sheet of paper changes its moisture content. When dry overly moist paper may appear wavy deformation. Previously, when the metallographic printing method, paper specially moistened, and when dry sheets as a result of deformation and shrinkage, there were differences in the size of stamps. With modern printing technology it is almost impossible. The forgers were subjected to some brands shrinkage method, known in the textile industry called "mercerizing", and given their inexperienced philatelists as "samples" and "species".

Aging is a property of the paper to change color, become brittle and fragile. For printing stamps usually used, especially in the last 40 years, the best grades of paper, not subject to rapid aging. With proper storage the stamps retain the original appearance for many decades.

PAPER ASTRO-SUITE — a special kind of card paper high-quality lacquered, with almost a mirror reflection of light rays. Used in the manufacture of marked artistic postal cards of the USSR since 1979.

PAPER BANKNOTE paper density and high strength with smooth (brushed) surface, usually with a watermark. Has been used mainly for the printing of banknotes, relatively rare — for postage stamps.

PAPER BREAD CARDS — special grade of paper intended for food cards; gray-blue fibrous paper. Because no other paper was used for printing stamps of Lithuania in the Berlin press in February and may 1919.

PAPER CARD (PROCARTON) — sort of thick stiff paper (thickness over 0.13 mm, weight of more than 120 g per 1 m 2) with smooth (satin) surface is sometimes coated. Used mainly to print different postcards. In the manufacture of postage stamps is rarely used, for example, so-called brands-the money of Russia in 1915-17, a special souvenir sheet Czechoslovakia in 1945.

CHINESE PAPER — the name of the local varieties of paper making manual (the candle), made of bamboo and rice straw. Used in the printing of the first stamps of Brazil 1843-50.

PAPER COLOR — the collective name of types of paper, which comprises dyeing wesesa, to give it some color other than white. Paper color is often used in printing postage stamps, for example, the USSR used in the early 1950s, blue, grey, yellow, cream and other Paper color (No. 1554-1555, 1559-1560, etc.).

PAPER COTTON in philatelic catalogs the name of grades used in the manufacture of postage stamps (for example, Soviet stamps 1921 No. 13C). A matte printing paper, loose, permeable typographical paint (the pattern can be seen on the reverse side). The name "Paper cotton" is not quite true, for cotton, its composition is irrelevant.

KRAFT PAPER — a tough paper medium density with smooth (brushed) surface, yellow-brown color in various shades. Used in the manufacture of one-piece things in different countries, including marked standard envelopes USSR in 1940-55.